mercoledì 21 febbraio 2024

Some considerations on investing in startups for the implementation of innovative ideas (in particular patents). [Alcune considerazioni sull’Investimento tramite Startup per l’implementazione di idee innovative (in particolare Brevetti)]

 Some considerations on investing in startups for the implementation of innovative ideas (in particular patents)

Comment to : The contribution of activity theory to modeling multi-actor decision-making: A focus on human capital investmentsSeptember 2022Frontiers in Psychology- DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.997062[1]

New ideas in every sector can generate innovation, but they usually carry risks, precisely because they have not been used in the past and there are no valid examples to evaluate them. But, new ideas are produced by human beings who develop them and propose them for practical socially useful application. Therefore it was rightly considered that the investment in Startups is essentially an investment which, as it expresses great trust in the idea and in the person who developed it for a purpose, can be assimilated to an investment in human resources (essentially attributable to the creator and only rarely to a few others associated with him, until the innovation is realized).

  The profile of the creator, thanks to today's technologies, can also be traced quite well for the implicit aspects (e.g. economic, patrimonial, cultural, scientific, psychological, social, regulatory, disciplinary, etc.). Certainly such a profile has value for the public or private investor, who is usually an organization and/or person with a high propensity for risk, capable of putting their assets and income at stake in order to see their capital profitably invested in the Startup and in the New Idea. But the public or private investor is also an all-round investment evaluator, very expert in the perception and appreciation of risk to limit it, taking into consideration - in the short, medium and long term - all the concrete aspects (tangible, measurable, evaluable) and also conceptual, psychological, meta-psychological and even meta-physical ones (therefore intangible, non-evaluable, non-measurable, elusive).

If we refer to the real case of innovative patents (except for the case of sale of the patented idea), where the existence of a patent already implies a certain and serious selection on the validity of the idea, experience in practice seems to indicate, however, that the final decision to invest or not in a Startup and in a New Idea is based on a discriminating point: that is, on the direct involvement of the creator and on the ability of the creator (individual or collective, structured in the legal forms of the Startup ) to put their capital (intellectual, patrimonial and income) at risk in order to see their New Idea realized. In practice, this is the real "price" that in general terms a creator must pay to obtain "credibility" in the eyes of the public or private investor. The higher this sort of "equity" of the creator (i.e. real risk capital), the higher the investor's propensity to share the risk with the creator, thus accepting an investment in the New Idea and the Startup result. All this implies the need for further analysis, and therefore possible research, on the concept of investment marginality with respect to the financial and income situation of the actual investor and of the creator proposing the investment. If, neglecting income, we refer only to available assets, and assume the following ratios:

Rinv= (Investor's share of the investment)/(Investor's assets);

rid = (Creator's share of the investment)/(Creator's assets);

considering that:

- the role of Investor is reserved for banks and financial companies with solid and broad capital capacity (therefore with Rinv << 1 usually small);

- while the Creator is usually individual and can be anyone, often a person with high human capital, creative, enterprising, but "common" in the sense of belonging to any social and economic stratum, and not necessarily with particular capital endowments;

it can be seen how the formation of sufficient "equity" to give credibility to attract investments in a new, but risky patent, is usually affected by a very high rid value, and often such that rid > 1. The situation thus becomes structural where:

Rinv << rid

The latter situation (with substantially investment marginality for the investor and anything but marginal for the Creator) necessarily leads to the assumption of debt risks by the Creator and therefore discouragement of innovation. In this way patents are easily sold, or become obsolete or abandoned without any attempt being made to explore their innovative value.

A situation with high entropy, and therefore waste of human and intellectual capital and also of capital in the broad sense, which occurs especially for those patents that find themselves in a liminal situation between basic experimentation and industrial experimentation, since they concern new ideas and processes to be experiment and therefore with high implicit financial risk.

A situation that makes new ideas and innovative proposals an almost exclusive area of the wealthy strata of our society and in view of a limitation and marginalization of the "middle class", it can take on the characteristics of "social exclusion" for some social parts equipped with intellectual capital, but not with economic-financial means.​

Finally, it is clear that the continuation of such a situation will allow innovation in an economy the more it is able to collectively assume the risk of innovation and the individual patented ideas that support it. Ultimately this brings to mind what N. Chomsky states in his essay on "Language and Politics", when he talks about the privatization of profits and the socialization of losses in a capitalist society.

 

(Versione Italiana)

Alcune considerazioni sull’Investimento tramite Startup per l’implementazione di idee innovative (in particolare Brevetti)

Commento a: Il contributo della teoria dell'attività alla modellazione del processo decisionale multi-attore: un focus sugli investimenti in capitale umanoSettembre 2022Frontiers in Psychology- DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.9970621

Le nuove idee in ogni settore possono essere generatrici di innovazione, ma sono solitamente portatrici di rischi, proprio perché non utilizzate in passato e non esistono esempi validi per valutarle. Ma, le nuove idee sono prodotte da esseri umani che le mettono a punto e le propongono per una pratica applicazione socialmente utile. Pertanto è stato giustamente considerato che l’investimento in Startup è sostanzialmente un investimento che, in quanto esprime grande fiducia nell’idea e in colui che l’ha messa a punto per uno scopo, può essere assimilata ad un investimento in risorse umane (sostanzialmente riconducibili all’ideatore e solo raramente a pochi altri insieme a lui associati, finquando l'innovazione non è realizzata).

 Il profilo dell’ideatore, grazie alle odierne tecnologie, può essere anche tracciato abbastanza bene per gli aspetti impliciti (per es. economici, patrimoniali,  culturali, scientifici, psicologici, sociali, normativi, disciplinari, etc.). Certamente un tale profilo ha valore per l’investitore pubblico o privato, che solitamente è organizzazione e/o persona con alta propensione al rischio, capace di mettere in gioco il proprio patrimonio ed il proprio reddito pur di vedere fruttare il proprio capitale investito nella Startup e nella Nuova Idea. Ma, l’investitore pubblico o privato è anche un valutatore dell’investimento a tutto campo, molto esperto nella percezione ed apprezzamento del rischio per limitarlo, prendendo in considerazione - nel breve, medio e nel lungo periodo – tutti gli aspetti concreti (tangibili, misurabili, valutabili) ed anche quelli concettuali, psicologici, meta-psicologici e addirittura meta-fisici (quindi intangibili, non valutabili, non misurabili, sfuggenti).

Se ci si riferisce al caso reale di brevetti innovativi (salvo il caso di vendita dell’idea brevettata), dove già l’esistenza di un brevetto implica una certa e seria selezione sulla validità dell’idea, l’esperienza nella pratica sembra indicare, però,  che la decisione finale di investire o  meno in una Startup e in una Nuova Idea, si giochi su un punto discriminante: ossia sul coinvolgimento diretto dell’ideatore e sulla capacità dell’ideatore (singolo o collettivo, strutturato nelle forme giuridiche della Startup) di mettere a rischio il proprio capitale (intellettuale, patrimoniale  e reddituale) pur di vedere la sua Nuova Idea realizzata. In pratica si tratta del vero “prezzo” che in termini generali un ideatore deve pagare per ottenere “credibilità” agli occhi dell’investitore pubblico o privato. Tanto più elevata è questa sorta di “equity dell’ideatore (ossia vero e proprio capitale di rischio) tanto più sarà elevata la  propensione dell’investitore a condividere il rischio con l’ideatore, accettando così un investimento sulla Nuova Idea e sulla Startup conseguente. Tutto ciò implica  la necessità di una ulteriore analisi, e quindi una possibile ricerca, sul concetto di marginalità dell’investimento rispetto alla situazione patrimoniale e reddituale sia dell’investitore vero e proprio. sia dell’ideatore proponente l’investimento. Se, trascurando il reddito ci si riferisce al solo patrimonio disponibile, e si assumono i seguenti rapporti:

Rinv= (Quota dell’investimento in capo all’Investitore)/(Patrimonio dell’Investitore);

rid = (Quota dell’investimento in capo all’Ideatore)/(Patrimonio dell’Ideatore);

considerando che:

-           il ruolo di Investitore è riservato a banche e società finanziarie con solida ed ampia capacità patrimoniale (quindi con Rinv << 1 solitamente piccolo);  

-          mentre invece l’Ideatore è solitamente individuale e può essere chiunque, spesso persona con elevato capitale umano, creativo, intraprendente, ma “comune” nel senso di appartenente a qualunque strato sociale ed economico, e non necessariamente con particolari dotazioni patrimoniali;

 si può rilevare come la formazione di una “equity” sufficiente a dare credibilità per attrarre investimenti su un nuovo, ma rischioso brevetto, è solitamente affetta da un valore rid  molto alto, e spesso tale che rid < 1. Diviene così strutturale la situazione in cui:

Rinv << rid

Quest’ultima situazione(con investimento sostanzialmente marginale per l’investitore e tutt’altro che marginale per l’Ideatore)  porta necessariamente all’assunzione di rischi di indebitamento da parte dell’ideatore e quindi di scoraggiamento all’innovazione. In tal modo i brevetti vengono facilmente ceduti, o diventano obsoleti oppure abbandonati senza che si sia tentato di sondarne il valore innovativo.

Una situazione ad alta entropia, e quindi spreco di capitale umano, intellettuale e anche di capitale in senso lato, che si verifica specie per quei brevetti che si trovano in situazione liminale tra sperimentazione di base e sperimentazione industriale, poiché riguardano idee e processi nuovi da sperimentare e quindi con alto rischio finanziario implicito.

Una situazione che fa delle nuove idee e delle proposte innovative un ambito quasi esclusivo di strati benestanti della nostra società e in vista di una limitazione e marginalizzazione della "classe media" può assumere i connotati di “esclusione sociale” per alcune parti sociali dotate di capitale intellettuale, ma non di mezzi economico-finanziari.

Infine, è evidente che il permanere di una tale situazione, permetterà l’innovazione ad un'economia quanto più essa sarà in grado di assumere collettivamente il rischio dell’innovazione e delle singole idee brevettate che la sostengono. In definitiva questo richiama alla mente ciò che afferma N. Chomsky nel suo saggio su “Linguaggio Politica”, allorché parla di privatizzazione dei profitti e socializzazione delle perdite in una società capitalistica.

sabato 20 gennaio 2024

Why does the stress strain curve in Abaqus of my concrete model look like this?A question posed (2024, Jan 11, ) by Hanif Hanif on ResearchGate

 







It is a stress-strain diagram. Let’s divide the diagram into 3 different zones: 1, 2, 3, each characterized by its own typical trend.

ZONE 1: Linear law between stress and strain (Hook’s Law). The slope of such a line is a measure of the elastic module of the material. If during this phase you stop applying the force, the preserved elasticity of the material brings it back to the original dimension from which you started (i.e. the origin of the axes). Elastic modulus, also known as Young's modulus, is a fundamental property of materials that measures their stiffness or resistance to elastic deformation under stress. This property is essential in engineering and materials science, as it determines a material's ability to support loads and maintain its shape. The area of each zone (kg x m) represent the necessary energy to deform the sample of (unknown) material under test.

ZONE 2: The law between stress and strain is no more linear.  Even stopping to apply the force, the original elasticity of the material is damaged and lost and it is impossible to bring back the material to its original dimension. Noticeable is the negative slope in this zone. The deformation continues with decreasing force up to a minimum and the slope changes sign again, due (presumably) to work hardening of the material.

ZONE 3: The minimum point reached can be considered the beginning of actual failure, characterized by large deformations with smaller forces, which again follow a law that is substantially linear here, but is not necessarily the case in all materials.

Observers rightly pointed out that there may be several reasons why the stress-strain curve of a concrete model in Abaqus may show a certain behavior. So that various elements to find an explanation should include: Material properties; Concrete model; Failure criteria; Loading conditions. 

In search of an explanation one might also think of an overlap in the proposed graph between load in action and reaction. But, as far as I can see (e.g. refer to the image below - Image source: https://caeassistant.com/blog/fiding-reaction-force-on-a-body / ) Abaqus distinguishes very well in the graphical results between action and reaction by presenting two separate graphs with different trends, especially in the case of dynamic loads.

In this case, however, the question was asked on a single graph without specifying whether it concerns active load (e.g. Zone 1) and reactive load (e.g. Zone 2 plus Zone 3) combined together, also excluding a part of reactive load until the start of the Zone 2 (All this trying to imagine a possible explanation). But it is not the case. So I am inclined to assume that the positive slope of Zone 3 is the result of work hardening, just as the specific literature mentions about it (search for: work hardening effect in unreinforced concrete). Anyhow, in case anyone has a different, specific explanation, I'd appreciate hearing about it.

venerdì 19 gennaio 2024

How can instructional supervision be the catalyst for innovation and excellence in education? A question posed by C.Gonzaga on ResearchGate

It should be stated that no one among humans possesses the Truth, except perhaps small fragments of it, often to be verified and proven through concrete evidence. What can be said regarding the question posed is necessarily inserted in individual experiences and in one's own intellectual path: social, educational, etc.

  Teaching supervision implies knowledge of what is supervised and therefore pedagogical attention to implicit teaching, so that in a highly evolutionary and competitive society, innovation is fueled through a cognitive stimulus that aims for excellence, above all with a disciplined and humble critical spirit, but without presumptions, arrogance or vainglory. An educational supervision that is limited to compliance actions and simple order towards pre-established schemes could not be very fruitful. In this regard it is necessary to remember how the school of "field psychology" (in particular Kurt Lewin) teaches that the more structured the (psychological) cognitive field is, the more efficient and powerful it is in analysis, but at the price of rigidity towards elements innovative critics. Conversely, the more unstructured the field is, the more creativity and willingness there is to accept and include in the field itself (through study and research) the critical elements that have emerged useful for innovation and a path to excellence. In essence, it requires a sort of pedagogical "trade off" to be evaluated, chosen and implemented based on contingent and situational elements.

Not so much from the question, but from the expected "key words" provided for the online search, we understand that these are also topics that concern Microsoft Excel. We can say that this spreadsheet, like others that exist on the market, offers a lot of potential in practical use. Equipped with many mathematical, statistical and programming logic functions, it is suitable for numerical calculation, but can also be used as a database for activities ranging from simple administrative management (orders, invoices, payments, etc.) up to real activities planning, management and control of contracts or projects, even very important and complex ones. For example, Excel can be programmable integrated with QBasic-type software, introducing procedural programming systems, although today the potential offered by Python tends to make it considered obsolete. Perhaps this is why there is news that «Microsoft has collaborated with the data science platform Anaconda to bring this functionality to life. The company uses the Anaconda Python distribution, running in Azure, to bring the most popular Python libraries to Excel, including Matplotlib and Seaborn for data visualization.( Aug 22, 2023 ref. https://techcrunch.com/2023/ 08/22/microsoft-is-bringing-python-to-excel/)» Excel's current graphing capability is good for diagramming its results, but certainly not comparable to what Python allows.

This alone indicates how careful didactic supervision can push critically to delve deeper into topics on which the field branches out, which inevitably induce the need for in-depth study, orienting teachers and students towards greater knowledge.

A simple and modest example of circumventing the potential in the field of analysis of old versions of Excel can be provided through the following reference: 

https://roccomorelli.blogspot.com/2022/07/a-tommaso-per-commenti-e-correzioni.html 

venerdì 12 gennaio 2024

What is the best way to find out the cost of various construction materials?

 What is the best way to find out the cost of various construction materials?

Question Asked 6 days ago by 

Answered by R.Morelli October 24th 2023 

A unique price for a material does not exist. What is valid in one country is not valid in another. There are obvious reasons that explain this.

In the construction sector, on a chosen site, the practice of asking for at least 3 offers for the purchase of materials, products, systems, services or works is still the most widespread (and often mandatory) in many contracting bodies or companies, not only in Western economies. Obviously such a practice implies - especially for projects of large amounts and with a long completion time - the ability to technically specify what you wish to purchase, also taking into account a whole series of constraints (commercial, currency, regulatory, adherence to standards and international codes, financial codes, etc.). It is not uncommon that where public institutions are involved, there may be price lists developed by the country's civil engineering institutions, or chambers of commerce, to which these public institutions refer. Or it may be these same institutions (or enterprises) that directly develop over time, and through the history of their construction experiences, actual price lists (to be constantly updated) to evaluate the results of their tenders for the assignment of contracts. Sometimes there exists in these same institutions a rigid and severe procedure for the preparation of requests for offers and the evaluation of the results of the tenders carried out. It goes without saying that the more numerous the requests for offers, the less the result provided by the average price is affected by errors. The average price can also be obtained on the basis of a specific algorithm made known to bidders during the tender, which also provides for the exclusion of the bid with the highest price and the one with the lowest price, to limit the risks associated with the choice of an unsuitable supplier or contractor. This risk, however, can in fact be mitigated through a preventive analysis of the potential and capabilities of the supplier or contractor, even before inviting him to submit the offer in question.
Alternatively and in a completely theoretical way, a price analysis can be developed which takes into account at least the unit costs of labour, work equipment, raw materials, energy, production plants, transport, etc. But it would only be pure exercise without any reference to the price values that are actually charged on the local, national, regional and international market.
Have a look at this. (Its just an example, even if its in Italian).

lunedì 18 dicembre 2023

An end-of-the-year event that makes you think

In the midst of a new war back in Europe, here is a 2023 end-of-year concert of Russian Sacred Music in the Early Christian Basilica of San Vitale al Quirinale in Rome. The Casa Russa in Rome, a cultural center of reference not only for Russian speakers, had announced it in advance and in fact the announcement was effective: the Church of San Vitale which hosted the concert was full and there was no seating available.

Concert announcement poster available online.

The website of ROME INTERNATIONAL - the guide to important events in the capital, highlighted that the soloists of the Dmitrov city choir “Union of Orthodox Women”, the soloist of the Bolshoi Theater and the Moscow Academic Musical Theater “Stanislavskij and Nemirovich-Danchenko” Maria Pakhar (soprano), the vocal ensemble of the Russian House in Rome. On the piano - graduated from the Moscow Conservatory and the Accademia di Santa Cecilia in Rome, winner of prestigious international competitions Natalia Pogosyan. The soloists of the Dmitrov city choir “Orthodox Women's Union” will perform, the soloist of the Bolshoi Theater and the Moscow Academic Musical Theater “Stanislavskij and Nemirovich-Danchenko” Maria Pakhar (soprano), the vocal ensemble of the Russian House in Rome . On the piano - graduated from the Moscow Conservatory and the Accademia di Santa Cecilia in Rome, winner of prestigious international competitions Natalia Pogosyan.

The performed repertoire is shown below:



The event took place without pomp, in a context of simplicity and essentiality, where there was nothing too much and nothing missing, as per Russian tradition.

Members of the Russian Embassy were present not only among the onlookers.

The Diocese of Rome itself, through its parish priest, a musician himself, wanted to highlight the event because it was not a simple musical event, as some of the audience present well understood.





Although the official part of the evening ended with Caccini's Ave Maria, a particular, almost transcendent, universal and absolute moment seemed to resonate, shortly before, like a prayer with assonances of kyrie elesion. Forgiveness is Grace, not granted by men, but by the Only One who can give it!

In conclusion, due to place, contents and forms, expressed or implicit, the event can be assumed as a subtle intent of reaffirmation of its Christian origins by the Russian environment, as well as of its European origins that the Western and European world first, it seems not willing to remember, especially at a time when the paths to peace cannot be opened in the face of an exhausting war between brotherly peoples in origin.

From the beautiful cultural evening we have this image of the entrance into the basilica with the Blessing of St. Patrick for the Traveler (and we all are such, on our way in this life!):
LET IT BE THE WAY AT YOURS
SIDE, THE WIND ALWAYS AT
  YOUR BACK, THAT THE SUN
SHINE WARM ON
  YOUR FACE AND THE RAIN
FALL SWEETLY IN THE FIELDS
AROUND AND, UNTIL
WE WILL NOT MEET
AGAIN, GOD PROTECT YOU
IN THE PALM OF HIS HAND.
Only one "worry" remains, that number 8212 engraved on the base, under the Cross, to which no meaning has been given!

mercoledì 15 novembre 2023

Why is it important, from a management perspective, to know if a product Z is a good or a service for the company?

 Why is it important, from a management perspective, to know if a product Z is a good or a service for the company?

ResearchGate - Asked October 27, 2023

Trifon Stefanov - Bachelor of Science - Practical enterprise application of Business Model Ontology and a new generation holistic ERP. Lectures and courses.- Institution: Institute for Systemic Economic Enginering

Answer by : R.Morelli - November 15, 2023

If the issue is approached from a general managerial point of view and from a contract management point of view, in particular, the following can be observed.

Usually the service contract, concerning activities, is quite similar to the works contract, but not to the supply (of goods) contract.

Compared to the past, althoujgh the various national and international legislations, over time, have flattened the differences, not only conceptual, between works contracts, service contracts and supply contracts (see for example the FIDIC conditions, but also those of clients or international contracting bodies), differences remain between these types of contracts, including practices, sometimes not negligible. To the point that a detailed case-by-case analysis may be necessary.

Conceptually, in works contracts (as well as in services contracts) "doing" generally prevails over "giving", while in supply contracts the situation is exactly reversed.

Thus, in works contracts the notion of "activity" or "work" is identified as prevalent, while in supplies the notion of "giving" referring to a concrete contractual object is believed to be prevalent. It is therefore not surprising that contracts for supplies in the strict sense of the word are commonly assimilated to sales contracts, to the point that in some organizations they are referred to with the term "purchases".

A well-founded criticism of the above approach comes from those who believe the notion of doing can also be identified in the supplies themselves. In fact, in principle, it cannot be absolutely excluded even in the case of the supply of raw materials, even if when it is present it varies greatly from case to case.

The notions of "giving" and "doing", however, are both significantly present in on-site supply contracts, making them certainly not comparable to simple sales contracts.

But the difference does not remain only of a "philosophical" or "legal" type, but can reach very concrete aspects, such as for example:

1) The contractual conditions of a works (or services) contract and a supply contract can be very different, especially where the contractual timetable includes prefabrication activities in workshops, modularisation or even performance tests or general testing, before be sent to a construction site and then assembled together with other components, perhaps supplied by different contractors or suppliers, thus generating the need to identify "supply limits", specially for the purposes of the performance and guarantee clauses of the components or systems.

2) The agreed contractual amount can be differently allocated on the activities that remunerate the work (and so labour) and on those that remunerate the goods supplied, to the point of differentiating the relative weights that in any price revision ("escalation") formulas frequently adopted for multi-year contracts that exceed 24 months. These different allocations may sometimes be contractually required in a bill of quantities that highlights it (in order to show how the total cost is splitted).

3) Inflation (%), especially in periods in which it can exceed 1 digit, taken into consideration in the price revision, does not work in the same way for work (or other non-human resources, such as construction site vehicles and equipment) and for goods, components or systems supplied; therefore it requires a careful differentiation of the indices to be identified contractually.

4) Taxation at the places of manufacture, transport and construction or along the entire supply chain does not produce similar effects if applied to work (mainly labour costs) or goods (mainly materials), components or systems supplied.

5) Following an industrial investment for any new initiative, the local impact of the investment on the regions where the construction site of a large plant is located, is not the same if the plant is treated "en bloc" as a single prefabricated asset outside the site and lowered onto it in some way (e.g. helicopters), or if it is instead built by assembling many small subsystems, components and supplies on the same construction site. Nor will the portions of work be identical in the two cases; nor will those who carry out and benefit from that work be the same.

6) The different allocation of the contractual amount on work activities, services, or the supply of goods, can influence, according to different national legislation (including in the EU), the limits of the subcontractable  activities.

All this is just a rough and approximate example, but it is also useful to demonstrate that awareness of the difference between work, service or supply contracts exists and is not a mere formal or simply economic question, but can have practical, fiscal and institutional implications: union and local consensus, subcontracting, programmatic aspects, etc., etc.

It is therefore good to keep it in mind, thinking concretely on a case-by-case basis.

°°°   °°°   °°°

Perché è importante, dal punto di vista gestionale, sapere se un prodotto Z è un bene o un servizio per l'azienda?

ResearchGate - Asked October 27, 2023

Domanda di : Trifon Stefanov - Baccalaureato in Scienze - Applicazione pratica a livello aziendale della Business Model Ontology e di un ERP olistico di nuova generazione. Lezioni e corsi. Istituzione - Istituto di ingegneria economica sistemica

Risposta di : R.Morelli

Se la questione viene affrontata da un punto di vista manageriale generale e da un punto di vista della gestione dei contratti, in particolare, si può osservare quanto segue.

Solitamente l’appalto di servizi, concernente attività, è abbastanza assimilabile all’appalto di lavori, ma non a quello di fornitura.

Rispetto al passato, sebbene le diverse legislazioni nazionali e internazionali, lungo il tempo, abbiano appiattito le differenze , non solo concettuali, tra appalto di lavori, appalto di servizi e contratti di fornitura (vedasi ad esempio le condizioni FIDIC, ma anche quelle di committenti o enti appaltanti internazionali), permangono diversità tra questi tipi di contratto, anche pratiche, talvolta non trascurabili. Al punto che può essere necessaria una dettagliata analisi caso per caso.

In via concettuale nell’appalto di lavori (come pure in quello di servizi) è generalmente prevalente “il fare” rispetto al “dare”, mentre nel contratto di fornitura la situazione è esattamente ribaltata.

Cosicché negli appalti di lavori viene individuata come prevalente la nozione di "attività”, di “lavoro", mentre nelle forniture si ritiene sia prevalente la nozione del "dare" riferito ad un oggetto contrattuale concreto. Non meravigli, quindi che i contratti per le forniture propriamente dette vengano comunemente assimilati a contratti di compravendita, al punto che in alcune organizzazioni ci si riferisce ad essi con il termine "acquisti".

Una critica fondata all'impostazione sopra riportata viene da coloro che ritengono si possa individuare anche nelle forniture propriamente dette la nozione del fare. Essa, infatti, in linea di principio, non può essere assolutamente esclusa neppure nel caso della fornitura di materie prime, anche se quando è presente lo è in misura molto variabile da caso a caso.

Le nozioni del "dare" e del "fare", comunque, sono entrambe presenti in modo rilevante nei contratti di fornitura in sito rendendoli non certo assimilabili ai semplici contratti di compravendita.

Ma la differenza non resta solo di tipo “filosofico”, o  “giuridico”, ma può giungere sino ad aspetti molto concreti, quali ad esempio:

1)           Le condizioni di contratto di un appalto di lavori (o servizi) e un contratto di fornitura possono essere molto differenti, specie li dove nel cronoprogramma contrattuale sono incluse attività di prefabbricazione in officina, modularizzazione o anche prove di performance o collaudo generale, prima di essere inviate su un sito di costruzione e quindi assemblate insieme ad altri componenti, magari forniti da appaltatori o fornitori diversi, generando così la necessità di individuare “limiti di fornitura” ai fini delle clausole di performances e garanzia dei componenti o degli impianti.

2)         L’importo contrattuale pattuito può essere differentemente allocato su le attività che remunerano il lavoro e su quelle che remunerano i beni forniti, al punto di differenziare i pesi relativi che in eventuali formule di revisione dei prezzi; formule frequentemente adottate per contratti pluriennali che superano i 24 mesi. Tale diversa allocazione può talvolta essere contrattualmente richiesta in un computo metrico estimativo che la evidenzi (come si spacca nelle parti principali il costo totale).

3)       L’inflazione (%), specie nei periodi in cui può superare 1 digit, presa in considerazione nella revisione prezzi, non marcia allo stesso modo per il lavoro (o le altre risorse non umane, quali i mezzi e attrezzature di cantiere) e per i beni, componenti o impianti forniti; quindi richiede una oculata differenziazione degli indici da individuare contrattualmente.

4)       La fiscalità dei luoghi di fabbricazione, trasporto e costruzione o lungo tutta la catena di fornitura non produce effetti analoghi se applicata al lavoro o ai beni, componenti o impianti forniti.

5)     A seguito di un investimento industriale per una nuova qualsiasi iniziativa, la ricaduta locale dell’investimento, sulle regioni in cui si trova il sito di costruzione di un grosso impianto, non è la stessa se l’impianto è trattato in blocco come un unico bene prefabbricato fuori dal sito e calato su di esso in qualche modo (per es. elicotteri), o se invece è costruito assemblando tanti piccoli impianti, componenti e forniture sul quello stesso sito di costruzione. Tantomeno saranno identiche le porzioni di lavoro nei due casi; e neppure saranno gli stessi coloro che svolgono e beneficiano di quel lavoro.

6)      La differente allocazione dell’importo contrattuale su attività di lavoro, di servizi, o di fornitura di beni, può condizionare, secondo diverse legislazioni nazionali (anche in UE) i limiti delle attività suabappaltabili.

Tutto ciò e solo esemplificativo, ma pur è utile per dimostrare che la consapevolezza della differenza tra appalto di lavoro, servizio, o fornitura, esiste e non è mera questione formale, o semplicemente economica, ma può avere risvolti pratici, di tipo fiscale, istituzionale, sindacale, di subcommittenza, programmatica, etc., etc.

E’ bene quindi tenerla ben presente, ragionando caso per caso in concreto.